1. Which enzyme-catalyzed reactions are shared between the gluconeogenesis and glycolysis pathways? (Note: just provide the name of the enzyme that catalyzes each of the shared reactions).
2. Why are some enzymes needed only in the gluconeogenesis pathway and not in the glycolysis pathway?
3. Which one of the following reactions only occurs during gluconeogenesis (i.e., not during glycolysis)? a. 1,3-bisphosphglycerate into 3-phosphoglycerate b. Glucose 6-phosphate into fructose 6-phosphate c. Oxaloacetate into Phosphoenolpyruvate d. Phosphoenolpyruvate into Pyruvate
4. An increase in glucagon levels can __________. a. Promote the degradation of glycogen (i.e., glycogenolysis) b. Occurs during the fasting state (starvation) c. Promotes the synthesis of glycogen d. A and B
5. A high school girl who is self-conscious about her appearance has been fasting for several days to fit into a dress she intentionally bought a size too small for a school dance. Which of her organs/tissues is producing the glucose that is being synthesized through gluconeogenesis? a. Red blood cells b. Muscles c. Liver d. Brain
6. Why do only some tissues (e.g., liver) contain the enzyme glucose-6- phosphatase?
7. What are the main products of the pentose phosphate pathway, and how does the cell use them?
8. How many molecules of ATP are produced during the metabolism of one (1) molecule of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway?
9. Which two (2) molecules are produced during the pentose phosphate pathway that are also produced during glycolysis?
10. Describe two (2) specific things that make NADH and NADPH different from each other (Note: consider the structural and biological properties of the two molecules). You may use your textbook and/or the internet to assist you.